Progressions vs. Retrogressions

I ii iii IV V vi viio

C to D chord, going up in seconds, following the root movement regardless of inversion

Down in thirds, I vi IV ii viio V iii I is GROSS (iii is bogus)

Down in Fifths, I IV viio iii vi ii V I called a turn around in jazz

Epic piece in D Major progression: I, IV, ii, viio, V, I

Diminished chords must be in first inversion

C major: I6, ii6, V, viio6, I

Primary Triads: I IV V
Secondary: vi ii viio
(used as substitution)

Cadences: kinda like punctuation in music, ending phrases, gives music a harmonic rhythm

Final Non-Final

V-I - Perfect Authentic viio - I, always imperfect Stops on V or viio, called a half cadence, only halfway through with the phrase

IV-I - Plagal V-vi - Deceptive cadence

Perfect : V or IV to One... both must be in root, soprano on last chord must have the root

IV6 to V is Phrygian

Phrase - series of notes that sound complete

Antecedent Phrase - Initial phrase that leads to the consequent phrase
Consequent Phrase - Result of the Antecedent Phrase

Non-harmonic tones - Notes that don't fit in the chord

Can't use 2nd inversion anywhere!

Cadential-tonic, uses same root to highlight the fifth, I64, V

Passing tone - doesn't fit in the chord

Nonharmonic tones occur because you are passing through them to get to a note that IS part of the chord

Pedal 6/4 - bass stays the same, chords played on top of it

Arpeggiated Chord - Bass line arpeggiates the the chord

Four Part Writing

Four part writing, divide the parts across the two staves, SATB (Soprano Alto Tenor Bass)

Stems for Soprano have to go up, stems for alto have to go down
Soprano can go from a Middle C to a High G
Alto goes from G below Middle C to a High D
Tenors go from the C below middle C to the G above Middle C
Bass go from Low low E to a Middle C

Between adjacent voices, you can't exceed an octave for the SAT
Bass ignores this rule
Never cross voices
Closed voicing means there is no chord tone that can fit between the S, A, or T voices
Open voicing: a Chord tone could fit between the S, A, or T voices

When in root position, MUST double the bass (or freebs breaks your face)
Same for 2nd inversion
1st inversion must double the soprano

Diminished chords - double the bass on the 1st inversion of the chord
Parallel Motion - Notes that move in the same direction at the same interval
Contrary Motion - the two parts move away from each other
Similar Motion - Same direction, different intervals
Oblique Motion - One stays the same, another changes
Parallel Fifths are FORBIDDEN
Parallel Octaves are FORBIDDEN
Augmented 2nds are FORBIDDEN

When writing four parts, retain common tones

Steps for writing four parts:

1. Figure out what notes are in each chord
2. Write out the bass line - smooth
3. Place all notes on staff using all rules
4. Do not move to the next chord until you have checked for errors
5. Stems!!! Use layers... Use a grand staff