The baroque period in England was "an age of opulence". The arts flourished and advances in the sciences allowed for better understanding for the natural world. Religious fervor during this period reached a climax and was further strengthened by the Protestant-Catholic conflict that resulted in war.
One of the most important political figures of the baroque period was Oliver Cromwell. He began as a relatively unknown member of Parliament in 1640, but he quickly rose to power and played a vital role in the deposition and execution of the king in 1648 and the abolition of the monarchy and the House of Lords. Cromwell was the head of state for five years until 1658, and ruled as a civilian leader sharing power with the other institutions of government. During this period, the British had fantastic success in foreign policy and war. They gained control of Jamaica in 1655, Bombay in 1661, New Amsterdam in 1664 and Gilbraltar in 1704, while vying with other European countries for a claim to the Americas.

Oliver Cromwell


The baroque period in Italy was an incredible period of innovation both artistically and scientifically, even though there was much political failure in Italy during this time. The period began with the first opera, Euridice, being composed in 1600, and the first opera house opening in 1637. In 1610, Galileo used his newly invented telescope to explore features of the moon, Jupiter and her moons, and the Milky Way. Galileo was also developing his famous laws of motion. In 1632, Galileo published his famous Dialogue defending the heliocentric views of Copernicus. He was put under house arrest by the church because of his "heretical behavior". In 1644, Italian inventor Torricelli invented the barometer and began studying characteristics of the atmosphere. Venezia dramatically lost Crete in a war in 1669. In 1706 Austria captured Milan from Spain. Three years later, Bartolomeo Cristofori invented the piano, one of the most important instrumental developments.
In 1718, Spain invaded Southern Italy, but the Spanish were expelled in 1720 by the Quadruple Alliance (Britain, Spain, Austria, and Savoy). In 1736, the last Medici died and Tuscany was inherited by Austria's Franz I Hasburg.
Bartolomeo Cristofori


In 1618 in Germany the Thirty Years War began. It was primarily sparked by tension between Protestants and Catholics. It ended in 1648, but it had devastated much of Germany and her population. Disease and famine were widespread, entire regions were denuded, and most of the strong German combatant powers went bankrupt. At the Battle of Vienna in 1683, the Holy Roman Empire put an end to the Westward expansion of the Ottoman Empire. The Holy Roman Empire's army in this battle lead the largest cavalry charge in the history of warfare. The empire came to an end starting in 1648 however, for in the Peace of Westphalia the various territories of the empire gained almost complete sovereignty. From 1740 onward, the political scene of Germany was dominated by the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy and the Kingdom of Prussia.

Both groups came to America for religious freedom because in England they were only allowed to practice Anglicanism. However, the Pilgrims were separatists who wanted to connection with the Church of England, while the Puritans simply wanted to refine and purify the tenets of the Anglican church.

They ended up going to the Netherlands because there they could have religious freedom.

They left the Netherlands because they had to learn Dutch and their children began observing Dutch traditions. They wanted to maintain their culture and to speak English.

Several important explorers of this era were Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, and Ferdinand Magellan.

One hundred and two.

Two month and three days.

They crafted a "Compact" in order to create a governing system. Some of the "Strangers", or people who were not leaving England because of religious dissent, thought that since they were not landing upon the land appointed by the Virginia Company for the pilgrims settle, they had no reason for supporting the community. The Compact made it so that there was an agreed upon governing system for the survival of a community.

They first landed in Provincetown Harbor, but moved up the coast because of friction with a local Indian tribe because the pilgrims were looting food stores and desecrating the graves of the Indians.

They stole corn that the Indians had buried for future stores. They also desecrated Indian graves and looted the bodies.

Scurvy is a disease caused by a deficiency of vitamin C. Scurvy prevents the healing of wounds because a lack of the ability to assimilate collagen. Also, bleeding is common because of fragile capillaries.

The Pilgrims would bury their dead at night so that the feared Indians would not see how many had died.

The Wampanoag were an Indian nation in modern day Rhode Island and Massachusetts.

Squanto was a member of the Patuxet tribe. He was pivotal to the establishment of the Pilgrims and the success of their colony. Squanto spoke English because he had been taken to Europe on a Spanish slaving ship. He eventually escaped and made his way to England. It was there he learned english.

Massasoit was a leader of the Wampanoag nation. He was leader of the Wampanoag during the establishment of Plymouth Plantation.

John Robinson was the pastor of the "Pilgrim Fathers" before they left for America on the Mayflower. He was also one of the founders of the Congregational Church.

Oceanus was thought to be the World Ocean, where it was discovered the Americas existed.

William Brewster was a pilgrim leader of Plymouth Colony. He was one of the original persons to come the America aboard the Mayflower.

John Carver was the first governor of Plymouth Colony and was elected so upon the signing of the Mayflower Compact. He forged an alliance with the Chief Massasoit of the Wampanoag nation, which was critical to the colony's survival.

Edward Winslow was a pilgrim leader on the Mayflower. He was elected governor of Plymouth in 1633, 1636, and 1644. His testimony describing the first Thanksgiving is one of two primary sources on the event.

Myles Standish was the military advisor that was hired by the pilgrims. He played a lead role in the administration and defense of Plymouth Colony.

Peregrine White was the first English child born to the Pilgrims in America.

William Bradford was an English leader of the pilgrims at Plymouth Colony. He was elected governor thirty times after John Carver's death. His journal from 1620-1647 provides extremely accurate accounts of the establishment of Plymouth. Mr. Freebern is related to one of William Bradford's children with his second wife that he married while at Plymouth Colony.

14. Describe the 'first' Thanksgiving (who was there, how long did it last, what did they eat, what did they do?).

15. Which American President proclaimed Thanksgiving a national holiday?
Franklin D. Roosevelt.