Quote 1: "Every time history repeats itself, the price goes up." Anonymous
I think that quote speaks to the fact that humans are constantly progressing. For instance, the first time that a caveman tribe stole the women of another tribe, the other tribe attacked them and took all of the women. Later, during the Trojan war, when Paris of Troy took Hellen from her husband Menelaus, there was a full-scale war fought with armies of tens thousands. The event was one of the most important in Greek mythology. Today, when one country enrages another, they have to fear whether they will be invaded or will have bombs dropped on their head. As humans progress, the price for mistakes goes up and up.

Quote 2: "Those who can not remember the past are condemned to repeat it." George Santayana
Going back the caveman example, Paris of Troy should have said to himself, "If I take Menelaus' lady, he's going to attack me and hide al of his troops inside a giant horse and then he's going to slaughter all of my people. I shouldn't take his lady." No matter how far humans progress, we are still made up of the same stuff that made up humans five thousand years ago, with the same misgiven tendencies. Like an individual who doesn't learn his or her lesson about burning his or her hand on the stove, if us humans don't learn from our mistakes, we're bound to keep burning our hand.

Quote 3: "The disadvantage of men not knowing the past is that they do not know the present. History is a hill or a high point of vantage, from which alone men can see the town in which they live or the age in which they are living." G.K. Chesterton
To me, this quote speaks in part to the uniqueness of humans. We are the only species on this planet that even has something called "history". No other animal records things or has any record of previous generations. Having history is part of what separates us from the rest of the animal kingdom. Without knowing the history of where our species has come from and arrived at our current juncture, it seems plain that one would be lost. Likewise, without any sense of the progress humans have made, it seems like that people wouldn't know how to progress or in which directions to steer humanity. Not only from this high point of vantage can man see the age in which he was living, but far the west he can see the sun setting upon ages past, and far to the east he can see the rising of ages yet to be lived.

Book 1
1. What is the title of your book?
A Treasury of Hours
2. Who is the Author(s)?
Fanny Fay-Sallois
3. Describe the contents of your book (topics, information, resources, etc.)
This book contains an annotated guide to understanding the prayers and illustrations of the "Books of Hours", which were the medieval books containing psalms and readings arranged for the time of the day. It contains many of the illuminated manuscripts as well as descriptions of the prayers contained within.
4. Provide a few fun facts or notable quotes from your book.
One of the driving themes of the book is the description of biblical events like the flight of Mary and her baby into Egypt. "Abba, father, all things are possible to thee: remove this chalice from me; but not what I will, but what thou wilt." (p 82)
"He who remains alone in his cell, rests and is exempt from three enemies: hearing, speech, and sight. He does battle with his heart alone.

Book 2
1. What is the title of your book?
Six Medieval Women
2. Who is the Author(s)?
Lynne Elliott
3. Describe the contents of your book (topics, information, resources, etc.)
This book provides a look at Europe through the viewpoint of six of medieval Europe's most remarkable women. The women are Joan of Arc, a religious visionary and a warrior; Eleanor of Aquitaine, a queen, crusader, and patron of the arts; Margery Kempe, a religious fanatic and pilgrim; Hildegard of Bingen, a legendary abbess, scientist, and composer; Christine de Pisan, an influential writer on the role of women; and Margaret Paston, who was a commoner and a wife and mother.
4. Provide a few fun facts or notable quotes from your book.
"Queen Eleanor, an incomparable woman,beautiful yet virtuous, powerful yet modest, unassuming yet eloquent, qualities that are most rarely encountered in a woman; still tireless in every undertaking, whose ability was the admiration of her age... many know what I wish none of us had known; this same queen, in the time of her first husband, went to Jerusalem. Let no one say any more about it... Be silent!

Book 3
1. What is the title of your book?
Medieval Medicine and the Plague
2. Who is the Author(s)?
Andrea Hopkins
3. Describe the contents of your book (topics, information, resources, etc.)
Some of the topics covered are medieval medicine and diseases, the Black Death, plague horrors, medical beliefs, home remedies, the apothecary, doctors, surgeons, female doctors, hospitals, and death and burial.
4. Provide a few fun facts or notable quotes from your book.
Dirty water was a critical disease-causing source, leading to serious diseases like dysentery, typhoid, fever, and cholera. Measles, smallpox, and chicken pox were also common, along with diphtheria, influenza, and whooping cough. Between 1347 and 1351, the Black Death killed about 25-40% of the population of Europe. Almost all medical knowledge came from books that were written long before the medieval period, from famous physicians like Hippocrates, Galen, Rhazes, and Avicenna.

Book 4
1. What is the title of your book?
Science and Technology in the Middle Ages
2. Who is the Author(s)?
Joanne Findon and Marsha Groves
3. Describe the contents of your book (topics, information, resources, etc.)
This book focuses on the scientific and technological achievements of the middle ages. The overall of scientific progress in this era was to make work easier, such as in the developing of new farming tools. Some of the most critical advancements were the three-field crop rotation system, the development of the mill, the making of cloth from wool and flax plants, the use of stone for building, the development of iron and steel weapons, and the advancement of medecine.
4. Provide a few fun facts or notable quotes from your book.
A thatched roof can last for up to 30 years. The development of small stone foundations made it so houses had to be rebuilt much less often, because it kept the the wood from touching the ground and becoming damp, thus rotting. "Most swords were useful for both thrusting and slashing. They had a sharp point that pierced through the gaps between plates of armor and at least one cutting edge to cut off an enemy's arms, legs, or head." Medieval medicine was based upon the "four humors", which were yellow bile, black bile, blood, and phlegm. They believed sicknesses were punishments sent by god and that they were caused by an imbalance among the four humors.

1. What are the factors that lead us to refer to the Medieval Period as "The Dark Ages"?

The Dark Ages was a time of general despair. Between multiple plagues and famines, a general lack of education, widespread superstition, wars, and lack of scientific and cultural development, the Dark Ages represents a period of very little progress in human history.

2. Describe why this 1000 year time period is referred to as "The Middle Ages".

This 1000 year period is considered the Middle Ages because it refers to the period between the decline of the Roman Empire and the rise of the Renaissance. The early middle ages were called the Dark Ages.

3. What is the medieval art form that interests you the most? (see the art and architecture link)

My favorite art form of the time is probably the stained glass windows. It's really interesting to see the progression and development of stained glass, especially in how we use it today. I definitely prefer the Gothic style version of stained glass, simply because I love the atmospheric tone that it provides which is muted by the increased amount of detail with Renaissance-style stained glass and the use of paint on the glass itself.

4. Considering the visual art and architecture of this time period, what do you predict the music of this period to sound like?

I would imagine it to sound very peaceful and pious, in a sense, because all of the art and architecture of this period of European history revolved around the church. Thus, I would imagine that a large amount of the music of the period was directly related to religious worship, which probably mostly took place in a very peaceful setting.

5. Listen to the "Music of the time of the Crusades" link and describe some characteristics of musical elements that are present in this example.

It is in a triple meter. In general it is very modal and slightly mesmerizing. I'm not sure whether it's just the performer or the instrument used itself, but the attacks on all of the notes are very harsh sounding and very snap-like. I feel like this wouldn't fit into the pious setting that I described above.

Chapter 5 Questions:

1. D
2. B
3. C
4. D
5. B
6. C
7. B
8. A
9. D
10. A
11. D
12. C
13. B
14. A
15. D
16. B
17. D
18. C
19. A
20. A
21. A
22. B
23. C
24. B
25. D
26. C
27. A
28. D
29. C
30. A
31. A
32. B
33. C
34. D
35. C
36. B
37. A
38. D
39. C
40. B
41. A
42. C
43. B
44. A
45. C
46. D
47. B
48. C
49. A
50. A
51. B
52. B
53. A
54. D
55. A
56. B
57. D
58. B
59. A
60. D
61. C
62. B
63. A
64. B
65. C
66. C
67. D
68. A
69. A
70. D
71. C
72. B
73. C
74. C
75. B
76. D
77. B
78. D
79. C
80. A
81. B
82. D
83. C
84. B
85. A.
86. C
87. D
88. B
89. A
90. B
91. B
92. C
93. D
94. B