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Bach to Rock
1.5 Million to 750,000 Years Ago
(a large-brained, small-toothed hominid) fossil was found in north Kenya and is approximately 1.5 million years old. This species was confined to east Africa for 750,000 years.
Homo erectus suddenly breaks out of Africa and into the tropical areas of Europe and Asia, approximately 750,000 years ago.
500,000 years ago
Fire discovered. By this time homo erectus is established in many of the world’s temperate zones, is making more sophisticated tools, and has even discovered and begun to use fire. Homo erectus was now killing large mammals. The brain size of the species, by the end of its evolution, was within the range of modern humans.
Between 450,000. and 200,000 years ago.
H. erectus evolved into H. sapiens. The early homo sapiens, though of the same species as ourselves, differed in appearance from modern humans. The oldest homo sapien fossil is a 400,000-450,000 year old fossil occipital bone from the base of a skull found in Hungary. The fossil was associated with fire and stone tools. Although the skull had a crest at the outer neckline like H. erectus, the shape was otherwise essentially modern.
150,000 to 35,000 years ago
H. sapiens neanderthalis live in ice age Europe and the Middle East, before becoming extinct about 35,000 to 40,000 years ago. Although scientist are not in agreement, it appears that Homo Sapiens Sapiens (modern humans) developed independently of the Neanderthals, and probably did not interbreed (since they lived along side one another for millennia with scanty fossil evidence of cross over in genes). The Neanderthals made extensive use of tools (though not to the extent of H. Sapiens Sapiens. Some of the burials are of aged or handicapped people who the Neanderthals must have felt important enough to care for. Scientists are divided as to whether Neanderthals were capable of speech.
90,000 years ago (perhaps as early as 200,000 years ago)
Anatomically modern humans appear.
Before the Common Era
30,000 Years Ago
The native Americans, humans of east Asian descent cross the bearing strait and enter the Western Hemisphere.
30,000 to 25,000 Years Ago
One of the oldest of many similar works of art, this one known as the Venus of Willendorf, was found in Austria. This object, of which many like have been found all over Europe, from Russia to France, is a figure of a woman, without facial characteristics, with what can best be described as pendulous breasts and a large belly, probably pregnant, belly. Its sexual characteristics are exaggerated and are believed to denote fertility.
20,000 Years Ago
The bow and arrow invented.
The famous cave paintings in the Altamira cave in northern Spain and in the Lascaux Grotto near Montignac, France show a very high degree of artistic skill manifested by ice age humans.
The Discovery of Agriculture and the Rise of Civilization
The Last 8,000 Years
The cultivation of grain begins in the fertile crescent of the middle eastern river valleys and alluvial plains. The basic grains were wheat, rice, rye, oats, millet, and barley. The fermentation process used for making wine and beer is simultaneously discovered.
Jericho, perhaps the oldest walled city in the world, has a population of approximately 2500.
Pottery is used for many purposes.
The Papuans (found today in New Guinea), developed an agricultural civilization in the Pacific Islands.
Linen (made from flax) is used for clothing.
Sumeria settled. The beginnings of Mesopotamian civilization in the area near the Tigris and Euphrates river valleys (modern Iraq), must have seemed like the “garden of Eden” to the Neolithic settlers who found the rich sandy soil to be very conducive to agriculture.
Irrigation in use in Mesopotamia.
Copper used extensively by early civilizations. Unsmelted copper may have been as early as 8000 B.C.E..
Maize or corn is cultivated in North America, in what is now Mexico.
5000 B.C.E.- 3000 B.C.E.
Between 5000 and 3000 B.C.E. The new stone age Kurgan culture, perhaps using metals, and having agriculture and domestic animals, was located in the steppes, west of the Urals. It is believed that these peoples were the original Indo-European speakers, whose language is the basis for the principal languages of all of modern Europe, Iran and India, and includes such diverse languages as Hindi and Sanskrit (India), Gaelic/Celtic (Scotland, Ireland, Wales), Germanic, English, Latin (and all of the Romance languages), Greek, Persian (Iran), Russian, Romani (Gypsy), Norwegian, Slavic, etc. In addition, Anatolian (including Hittite) and Tocharian (spoken in medieval Chinese Turkestan), all now extinct, were Indo-European languages.
This culture had spread throughout Eastern Europe, Northern Iran, and perhaps India, by 2000 B.C.E. Although by 2000 BC, classical Greek, Avestan (ancient Persian), Sanskrit (and even Hittite), for example were distinct languages, a thousand years earlier, they were fairly unified.
Thus, in 3000 B.C.E. the people who would later speak Hindi, Persian and Greek could quite possibly have communicated with one another freely, in languages similar enough to be understood by each, if indeed, the people were related to the language they spoke.
Boats and ships are constructed by “primitive people.”
There are four main distinct ancestral languages spoken in Africa: Afroasiatic, Nilo-Saharan, Niger-Kordofanian, and Khoisan. They appear to be very old. The Mande branch may have broken off from of the Niger-Congo subfamily of the of the Niger-Kordofanian language group as early as 6,000 years ago.
language group is spoken mainly in north Africa, Nigeria, Ethiopia and Somalia. Hausa is a member of this group (a member of a language branch called Chadic) is the second most widely spoken language of sub-Saharan Africa. As many as 15 million people may use this language as a first language and many others as a second.
languages are spoken from Mali to the Nile basin, in and south of the Sahara, and in Uganda, Kenya and northern Tanzania in east Africa.
languages are spoken almost everywhere in Africa, from the west coast to the east coast, from Senegal to Kenya, South Africa, southern Sudan, Nigeria, Cameroon, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Benin Liberia, Sierra Leone. A majority of all the languages of Africa are included in a Niger-Kordofanian sub-family, the Niger-Congo. Yoruba and Igbo are in this group, which includes perhaps 10 million speakers of each. Recently, the Bantu language groups have been determined to be Benue-Congo branch of the Niger-Congo subfamily of Niger-Kordofanian languages. Bantu languages (which include Swahili with its 20 to 30 million speakers) makes up more than one-third of African languages.
is the smallest of the four African language groups. This group includes the language of the Bushmen and Hottentots.
The beginning of Sumer’s recorded history.
The horse is tamed for riding.
The plow is invented.
There is unmistakable evidence of a flood in Mesopotamia of gigantic proportions. “The disaster engulfed an area north-west of the Persian Gulf amounting to 400 miles long and 100 miles wide.”
The beginnings of the Sumarian Civilization in the Mesopotamian river valley.
The wheel may have been invented as early as 8000 B.C.E., but by 4000 B.C.E. it was being attached to carts for transportation.
Adam and Eve created
, if the Biblical timeline is taken literally.
Sumarian civilization is flourishing
, with large buildings, temple worship, kings and art in the form of frieze frescoes.
Copper is alloyed with tin to create bronze, a much stronger metal than copper.
The use of numbers invented, probably in Sumer.
The beginning of Egypt’s recorded history.
Cuneiform writing invented in Sumer.
The original construction of
probably begun. Additions were made for the next 1500 years.
3100 to 2700 B.C.E.
First two archaic Egyptian dynasties
Phoenician’s settle Mediterranean coast.
flourishes in Crete.
Epic of Gilgamesh (the Sumarian Noah) composed, according to Compton’s Encyclopedia. However, the famous and near complete 12 tablet cuniform Akkadian (Babylonian) text found in Mesopotamia were transcribed a thousand years later, around 2000 B.C.E. It is probable that the written epic was based upon an earlier tradition, undoubtedly Sumarian, but whether or not the story goes back another 1000 years is problematic.
The Semitic languages can be divided into four principal groups.
The oldest known Semitic language, Akkadian (the language of Assyria and Babylonia) was commonly spoken in Mesopotamia between 3000 and 500 B.C.E.
Hebrew language, Ugaritic, Phoenician, Canaanite, Aramaic (the language of Christ) and Syriac are included in the a group of related Semitic languages known as the North Central group.
The South Central group includes Arabic.
The South Peripheral group includes certain of the South Arabic dialects and the languages of Ethiopia.
Semitic words are based on a series of three consonants, called the root, which carries the basic meaning. A pattern of superimposed vowels signal differences in the basic meaning.
Where and when the Semitic speakers originated is uncertain. Most scholars think these people probably originated in southwestern Asia or in Arabia. The evidence suggests that Semites were scattered throughout Mesopotamia before the establishment of Sumarian culture, which would place them earlier than 4000 B.C.E. Wave after way of Semitic nomads periodically emerged from the desert wastes to invade Mesopotamia, Egypt, Canaan and the Levant.
Old Kingdom in Egypt.
Egyptian “Old Kingdom” 3rd-6th Dynasties.
The great pyramids (2550B.C.E.) and the Great Sphinx constructed. The largest pyramid rests on a base of 13 acres and is 481 feet high.
Huangi Ti Emperor.
Zoser Step Pyramid built.
Crete enters the Bronze Age.
Civilization in the
Camels domesticated. Camels, however, were not common in Egypt until at least the 6th century B.C.E., though they were used in Mesopotamia several hundred years earlier.
Lugalzaggisi Unites Sumer
Sumerian empire founded.
Sargon conquers Sumer, uniting it with Akkadia.
Geat Pyramid, Cheops.
Paper invented in Egypt.
Egyptian “First Intermediate period” 7th-11th Dynasties.
comes when Noah is 600. (600+1056=1656) (Abraham made his famous trek to and through the promised land around 1900 B.C.E., about 2000 years after year zero, using Biblical chronology. So, year 1656 would be about 2244 B.C.E., if your counting.)
Hsia. Joman culture in Japan.
Akkadia at peak. Ur at its height.
Akkadia ends with death of Naramsin?
The Middle Kingdom in Egypt was ruled by the 11th and 12th Dynasties.
Aryans invade Indus valley.
Peoples from Southeast Asia arrived in Melanesia by boat.
Amorites control Sumer and Akkad
under King Hammurabi, famous for his code of laws.
The oldest known Inuit (or Eskimo) societies have been found on Umnak Island in the Aleutians.
Epic of Gilgamesh (the Sumarian Noah) was reduced to writing in the cuniform script in the Akkadian language. It is probable that the written epic was based upon an earlier tradition, undoubtedly Sumarian, but whether or not the story goes back another 1000 years, as suggested by some sources is problematic.
The Hittites, very probably an early Indo-European people dominate Asia Minor (Anatolia/Turkey). Arount 1200, the Hittites fell to the hordes of mysterious mixed Indo-European invaders know as the People of the Sea.
The Hittite Empire begins in 1620 B.C.E.. The Hittites are known to have lived in Anatolia (Turkey) as long ago as 3000 B.C.E.. They formed a kingdom around 2000 B.C.E. which reached its peak in about 1350 B.C.E..
The secret to the Hittite success was probably the fact that they discovered how to smelt iron. Iron was not as effective as bronze but it was much cheaper. To make iron, a hotter fire than the one that can be created naturally is needed. Bellows and the use of coke or coal are used to achieve the heat needed. The Hittites were able to closely guard the secret for making iron for many years, and in the interim, the cheap manufacture of iron war materials enabled them to dominate their neighbors.
1900 B.C.E. (or maybe 2100)
Abraham, or someone like him, journeys to Canaan.
Exact date is uncertain.
Babylonian Kings. Ammorites.
1800 to 1570 B.C.E.
Egypt’s Second Intermediate Period (13th-17th Dynasties)
. For a little over 200 years, Egypt was either unstable or in turmoil. At the beginning of this period, we know that were large numbers of Hyksos in northern Egypt. The Hyksos were Semites, presumably closely related to the Hebrews and other Semitic Canaanites. Their presence at this time may account for a further influx of nomads from coastal Phoenicia and Palestine and the eventual establishment of the Hyksos dynasty as the 15th Dynasty of Egypt.
The Hyksos introduced the horse into Egypt, and is probably the main reason they were able to conquer the country so easily.
The domination by the Hyksos may account for the fact that Joseph and his brothers may have been welcomed sometime during this period.
At least 50 pharaohs, ruled during the 120 year period of the 13th Dynasty. The rulers of the 13th Dynasty, most all weak, were challenged first by the rival 14th Dynasty, and finally by the Hyksos.
The Hyksos controlled middle and northern Egypt from their capital at Avaris in the eastern delta. Simultaneously, the native Egyptian rulers of the 16th Dynasty ruled the delta and Middle Egypt, but probably as tributaries to the Hyksos.
In the South, a third contemporaneous power arose, the Theban or 17th Dynasty. This force ruled over the territory between Elephantine and Abydos. The Theban ruler Kamose, who reigned around 1576-1570 B.C.E., routed the Hyksos on several occasions. His brother, Ahmose I, finally subdued theme entirely thereby reuniting Egypt, initiating the 18th Dynasty in 1570 B.C.E.
The Indo Europeans (Aryans) invade and conquer India. There close relatives, the Iranians (Persians and Medes) move into the Iranian plateau.
Accesion of Hammurabi.
Code of Hammurabi published. Hammurabi was an early Babylonian Semite king. This was a comprehensive law code covering many aspects of daily life, and regulating human relationships in such matters as contracts, tort, marriage and divorce. Punishments provided were often in the “eye for an eye” category, the intention being that the punishment should fit the crime. A stone engraved text of the code was discovered in Susa (in what is now Iran) in 1901. It can be seen in the Louvre in Paris.
The Hittites destroy Babylon.
Beginning to peak of Hittite Civilization.
Mohanjo Daro destroyed.
The Hindu sacred Vedas (epic poems and hymns) are reduced to Sanskrit, perhaps as early as 1700 B.C.E., and perhaps as late, in some cases, as 1200 B.C.E.
The Shag Dynasty flourishes in China. It may have been founded as early as 1750 B.C.E., but this is uncertain. The Shag Chinese were advanced in the use of bronze. Before the Shag, there is only the legendary His dynasty, about which there is no real archeological evidence.
1570 (or 1500?) B.C.E.
New Kingdom in Egypt.
Hyksos defeated by Egyptians.n
1570 B.C.E.-1293 B.C.E.
In 1570 B.C.E. Ahmose I, founded the
which lasted for over 300 years. This is the period of the New Kingdom in Egypt, whose capital was mainly Thebes. The native Egyptians had succeeded in wresting back control from the Hyksos, which may account for the subsequent enslavement of the Semitic Israelites living in Egypt at this time. These Pharoahs knew not Joseph.
Amenhotep I, reigned from 1551-1524 B.C.E. He extended Egyptian power into Nubia and Palestine. Amenhotep’s successor, Thutmose I asserted the preeminence of the god Amon (or Aton). Thutmose II married his half sister Hatshepsut. He died in 1504 BC and was succeeded by Thutmose III. Thutmose III was still a child at the time, and so his mother Hatshepsut began by governing as a regent, but before a year was out, she had herself crowned as pharaoh, and then ruled jointly with her son. Hatshepsut died in 1483 B.C.E. and 20 years later Thutmose III had her name and images removed from all public places.
Amenhotep II reigned 1453-1419 B.C.E. and was succeeded by Thutmose IV who continued to have problems with the Mitanni and Hittites
From 1386 to 1349 B.C.E., Amenhotep III ruled in peace for almost 40 years, during which time art and architecture flourished.
He was succeeded by his son, Akhenaton (Amenhotep IV).
Akhenaton was succeeded by his son-in-law, Tutankhamen. Horemheb, who reigned 1321-1293 B.C.E. was the last member of the 18th Dynasty.
1400 B.C.E. E.
Iron ore was known long before the technology was developed for smelting it. The technology for smelting iron, was perfected among the Hittites around 1400 B.C.E.. Iron was not as strong or as durable as bronze, but it was cheaper to make. For a long time, the Hittites form their base in Asia Minor (Anatolia, or modern day Turkey) controlled the supply and the secret for smelting iron.
1450 to 1100 B.C.E.
This is the heyday of the Mycenaean Greeks who conquered Troy around 1186 B.C.E.
The Hittites establish a new Kingdom whose boundaries are the Aegean Sea and deep into Syria and Mesopotamia.
Ramsese the Great
Hittites at peak.
The Hittite King Suppiluliuma ruled from approximately 1380-1346 B.C.E. He conquered the kingdom of the Mitanni in northern Mesopotamia, and then parts of Syria, during the reign of the Akhenaton the monotheist Egyptian pharaoh.
1353 to 1336 B.C.E. (or 1379 to 1362 B.C.E. depending on who is reckoning)
King Amenhotep IV (who later changed his name to Akhenaton or Ikhnaton) rules Egypt, and attempts a radical experiment in monotheism, hitherto not practiced anywhere else in the world, with the exception perhaps, of some early versions of Hinduism, and excepting the worship of primary tribal gods.
This religion was based upon the worship of Aton, or Aten, the sun god. As you can imagine, Akhenaton (meaning “it is well with Aten”) was not popular with the priesthood, especially the priests of the many other now non existent deities. This religious experiment ended with Akhenaton’s death.
Akhenaton’s first wife appears to have been his mother (Tiy). He had one daughter by her. His second wife, the famous queen Nefertiti, was his maternal cousin. His third and fourth wives were not relatives. Akhenaton’s son by his fourth wife was the now famous King Tut (Tutankhamon, named after the sun god Aten that his father had declared was the only god). Akhenaton’s fifth and last marriage was to one of his daughters by Nefertiti. Tutankhamon brought the experiment with monotheism to an end, and returned to the worship of the old Egyptian gods. Tutankhamon married his half sister.
Peoples of the Sea begin journey of devastation, ultimately destroying the Hittites, among others.
This is most the most likely time of the Israelite Exodus from Egypt, during the rule of Ramses II, though we cannot be sure.
Israel in Canaanon
Troy, a city located on the coast of Asia Minor, was conquered by Mycenaean Greeks in 1186 B.C.E.. Troy had been a prosperous city since 3000 B.C.E.
Wu Wang founds the Chou dynasty.
The Shag Dynasty in China is overthrown by the Chou Dynasty in 1122 B.C.E., and lasts for 900 years. Confucianism and Taoism arose and flourished during this period.
The semi-historical Dorian Greeks displaced, with general, though not complete success, the Mycenaean, Ionean and other Greek speakers, followed by a dark age for Greece, that later emerges with infused vigor.
The Dorians conquered and colonized Sparta, the island of Rhodes and much more. They built the famous Colossus of Rhodes, a bronze statue numbered as one the Seven Wonders of the World.
This is the date that
was installed as King, and marks the beginning of the monarchy in Israel. Saul was succeeded by David, and David by Solomon. After which the kingdom was divided forever between North and South.
King David rules the united Northern and Southern Kingdoms until his death in 961 B.C.E.
The Mayan dynasty was founded in Central America and Mexico. This culture reached its height in 500 C.E., and before Cortez arrived to destroy all he could find, the Mayas had been displaced by the Toltecs and Aztecs.
King David captures Jerusalem.
Teutons arrive at the Rhine.
Solomon succeeds David as King until Solomon’s death in 922 B.C.E.. The construction of the temple in Jerusalem was undertaken and completed during his reign. He has 700 wives and 300 concubines.
Following Solomon’s death the Kingdom is divided into two, Judah (and Benjamin and Levy) on the South and Israel (the remaining ten tribes) on the North.
900 B.C.E.-300 B.C.E.
Olmec culture (the oldest in America) flourishes in the coastal lowlands of Mexico and Central America. The Olmecs are known as sculptors. The famous huge Olmec sculptures of heads that appear for all the world like Africans. They built pyramids and used hieroglyphs. Some have suggested that they had an old world or African origin, but this is speculation.
King Ahab (whose wife was Jezebel) rules in Israel until 850 B.C.E. Elijah preached during this period.
Carthage (near modern Tunis) is founded by the Phoenicians (Cannanites). Hannibal was a Carthaginian. Carthage was finally destroyed by the Romans after the third Punic war in 146 B.C.E.
, masterpieces of world epic poetry, were recited by a blind poet named Homer, sometime between 850 and 750 B.C.E..
The Kingdom of the Medes, an Indo-European people closely related to the Persians, is being established at Ecbatana.
The first Olympic games are held in Greece.
Causes of the fall of Rome:
1. The Romans conquered more territory than they could control themselves so they had to enlist the services of conquered peoples to join their ranks and do the guarding for them. These people had no vested interest in keeping Rome's borders safe the way a native Roman would.
2. Morally, Rome had sunk into a depravity that few civilizations have ever sunk, although sometimes alarmists say that we are headed there also. Orgies, vomitoriums, bestiality, human sacrifices, gladatorial contests in the Coliseum -- they were all excesses that bled the Roman dry of energy and the Roman treasury of money
3. The "meleting pot" aspect of the Empire led first to its split into an Eastern and Western half and then into the decay and fall of the Western half. The Eastern half endured several hundred more years but with fewer outside peoples, a stricter control on things, and a smaller area
4. The Romans had been attacked and attacked by barbarians like Atillia the Hun. Rome had been sacked.
5. The Roman soldier, fighting for his nation was gone. Instead, there was barbarian mercenaries fighting in the colours of Rome, who felt no real desire to save Rome.
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