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Bach to Rock
1. Sound is created by vibrations that occur when something is struck, plucked, stroked, or agitated. Sound is measured in several ways. Amplitude measures the length of the vibrations - how loud the sound is. Frequency measures the number of vibrations per second - determining whether the pitch heard is high or low.
2. Frequency is the number of times a vibration occurs per second. Frequency is also called pitch. The more vibrations, the higher the pitch will sound. The fewer the vibrations, the lower the pitch will sound.
3. Pianissimo (very soft),
Mezzo piano (medium soft),
Mezzo forte (medium loud),
. Forte (loud),
Fortissimo (very loud),
4. < = crescendo, get louder. > = decrescendo or diminuendo, get softer.
5. Timbre is the general tone quality and color that an instrument creates. The timbre is defined by the overtones that an instrument creates. Overtones are the partial vibrations that occur when the string not only vibrates along its full length but also in half length, quarter length, one eighth length, etc.
6. Overtones are what make each instrument sound different and also are what provide the texture to instruments. By controlling the overtones while playing an instrument, one can effectively control the "color" that one evokes while playing.
7. Tone color is the quality of sound that an instrument can emit. Some examples of tone colors are warm, bright, dark, and brassy, among others.
8. Rhythm in music is the time aspect. Rhythm is essentially the "beat" of music.
1. Rhythm, in its broadest sense, is the time aspect of music.
rhythm describes a specific collection of note lengths.
2. A beat is the basic measure of time in music. The beat is the background pulse that exists within music although it is not always explicitly played.
3. The accent serves to provide which note resides where in a measure. The first beat in a measure generally is a strong beat, followed by a weak two, followed by a slightly stronger three, and then a weak four.
4. A sforzando is when a specific note is suddenly played very loudly. Two abbreviations are
5. A beat is the unit of measure of time in music. An accent is a specific beat or note that is louder than others. Meter is the organizations of beats, generally in twos or threes.
6. Duple meter is when the meter is in two. Triple meter is in three. Compound meter is when multiple twos or threes or combined to create the meter.
7. The meter is the background and the rhythm is the foreground. This is because rhythms are always explicitly played by the instruments and is generally more complicated. The meter is generally not played but felt, and is very simple.
8. Metrical means that it is constantly in beat. Metrical things are like the dripping of a faucet or the tick of a clock. Non-metrical means it is not in beat. An example of something non-metrical is gregorian chant.
9. A syncopation is a rhythm that occurs with accents that go against the meter. This often occurs in jazz styled music.
10. The relative durations of music consists of how many beats each note contains. The absolute duration is how many beats occur per minute.
11. The metronome is a pendulum with a weight on it. The position of the weight determines how fast the pendulum swings, creating a steady beat. These rates are given names such as adagio (slow), moderato (moderate tempo) and presto (very fast).
12. Adagio (slow), andante (on the slow side), moderato (moderate tempo), allegretto (on the fast side), allegro (fast), presto (very fast).
13. Accelerando (faster), ritardando (slower), piu lento (slower), piu allegro (faster)
14. The scale is a combination of pitches used for composing. The diatonic scale is a Western scale that has seven pitches. The chromatic scale has 12 pitches. Many cultures have their own musical scales. There are pentatonic scales and twenty-four note scales in other places as well.
15. An octave is a pair of notes that are incredibly harmonious. An octave is exactly double the frequency of the note below it. The string is also exactly half the length.
16. A half step is on chromatic step upwards or downwards. A whole step is two half steps upward or downward.
17. The chromatic scale, because you can start it anywhere and it will be the same organization of notes.
18. No, some instruments one must be "in tune". These include string instruments and the voice. One must find the location of where a note is on string instruments to play it in tune, for instance. Instruments not only need vibration, but they also need some sort of resonator, such as the body of a guitar.
19. Singing in tunes means singing on the pitch (ie near the correct frequency for a note). Sometimes performers will sing a note slightly off tune, such as the use of "blue notes" in jazz.
1. A melody is an organized series of pitches. A tune is a simple, easily singable, and catchy melody as occurs in folk songs. A motive is a distinct and memorable fragment of a melody. A theme is a common, linking idea in a piece. This can be performed by a melody, a phrase, a motive, a tone color, or even a rhythm.
2. A phrase is the division of a tune into a smaller section. Two phrases can be related to each other by the parallel structure of the two phrases.
3. Rising notes generally indicate the coming of a melodic high point.A melodic high point general occurs with the highest pitch as well as the loudest dynamic. It is also generally an emotional high point. After the climax, the tune relaxes until it reaches a resting point. This is called a cadence.
4. A motive is related to a theme in that several motives combined can make up a theme. Motives and themes help tie together different sections of a piece of music, making it have continuity. This is especially important in longer pieces.
5. A motive can serve as a theme because a motive is a distinctive piece of melody. A theme is an idea that ties together long pieces. A motive can serve as a theme by providing melodic material that brings together different sections of a piece.
6. Harmony is the music the resides beneath the melody. Generally, harmony is created by using chords that line up with the melodic material.
7. Harmony occurs in intervals that provide a sense of rest and a feeling that they belong together (major thirds, fifths, major sixths, octaves). Dissonance occurs in intervals that provide more of a sense of being tense (minor and major seconds, the minor third, the perfect fourth, the minor sixth, and the minor and major seventh). Having both present in a piece of music is critical, because discord leaves a sense of expectation that is resolved with consonance.
8. Texture refers to the blend of various sounds and melody lines. The three major textures are Monophony, Homophony, and Polyphony. Monophony is one single unaccompanied melody line. Homophony is a melody line with accompaniment beneath it. Polyphony is multiple melody lines that are each of equal importance playing off of each other.
9. Counterpoint is the way that different voices fit together. Polyphony refers to the texture of multiple melody lines, while counterpoint refers to the technical writing of different melodies that fit together.
10. Imitative polyphony results when multiple melody lines using similar material are layered with one beginning shortly after another. Nonimititative polyphony is when there are multiple melody lines that are mostly unrelated in their strict content.
11. Tonality refers to the sense that a single note is the resting point Tonal music refers to the style of music that has a feeling of tonality, thus having a tonic. A tonic is the first note of a scale, as well as the "home pitch".
mode is the major mode. It is generally thought of to be a "happy" mode. The
mode is the minor mode, generally thought of as being a sad and somber mode. Modes occur by starting on different pitches of the major diatonic scale, thus creating seven total different modes.
13. A key is the location of the tonic in a scale. The major scale can start on any note in the chromatic scale because it is based solely upon the relationship of half and whole steps. Modes are created by using a regular key but having the tonic of the mode not be the tonic of the major scale.
14. A key is the number of sharps or flats in scale. Any key can start on any note in the chromatic scale because keys are based upon the relationship of sharps and flats.
15. Twenty-four. One major and one minor scale can be created from each different note in the chromatic scale.
16. Modulation is the transfer during a piece from one key to another.
17. The third, sixth, and seventh scale degrees of the minor mode are shifted down a half step. The major scale sounds brighter, the minor, more subdued.
1. Strings, woodwinds, brass, percussion.
2. The violin is the highest string instrument. It is very melodic and is often considered the most beautiful instrument in Western music. The viola is a tenor range instrument and larger than the violin by several inches. It fits smoothly with an accompaniment texture. The cello, or violoncello, is the bass of the string family. Cellists play seated with the instrument propped on the floor. It has a very rich, warm sound. It is a popular solo instrument. The Bass is the lowest string instrument and often backs up the violins in an orchestra. The bass can also often be plucked.
3. The harp can play all notes of the chromatic scale using a foot pedal to change from the "white notes" to the "black notes".
4. Flutes, Clarinets, Bassoons, Saxophones, and Recorders. With flutes, the highest is the piccolo, followed by the alto flute and the bass flute. The E-flat clarinet is the highest clarinet. The bass clarinet is lower.
5. The recorder was used first To play it, one blows in a special mouthpiece at the end. It was replaced by the transverse flute, or horizontal flute, because of its greater agility and strength.
6. The oboe uses a double reed, two reeds that are lashed together. The clarinet uses a single reed that vibrates the air within the tube.
7. The trumpet is the highest and brightest instrument, capable of extremely loud dynamics. The French horn is lower and very mellow. It has a very warm tone is can also be played very loudly and melodiously. The Trombone is lower than the trumpet and uses a slide mechanism to control pitch. It is less bright and yet it can also be very blasting and brassy. The tuba is the foundation of the brass, being the lowest common instrument. It is generally not favored for solo work.
8. The two categories are pitched and unpitched percussion. Examples of pitched percussion are the glockenspiel, the xylophone, and the timpani. Unpitched percussion include cymbals, the triangle, and the snare drum.
9. The four keyboard instruments are the Piano, Harpsichord, Clavichord, and Organ. The piano uses strings that are struck by hammers and resound off of a sound board within the body of the instrument. The harpsichord is an ancient keyboard instrument used particularly in baroque music. The strings are plucked by little quills that move vertically. The clavichord is another ancient keyboard instrument. The strings are struck by metal levers. It is very intimate and very, very quiet. The organ, called the "king of instruments", is the largest keyboard instrument. The keys in an organ pump air through pipes that create the pitches. Each pipe produces a different specific pitch.
1. Form in visual art, form has to do with the overall visual balance of the piece as well as the specific geometric shapes that appear in the piece and how they relate to each other. In poetry, rhythm of the lines and meter within the overall piece contribute to form in poetry.
2. Composers can manipulate rhythm, pitch, melody, dynamics, tone color, and texture.
3. Form is the relationship that ties the beginning, middle, and end of longer pieces. Form has as great to deal with emotional quality. Repetition and contrast give the listener a sense of "location", feeling that the piece they are listening to in the middle of it is the same piece as at the beginning.
4. Composers can relate these parts as a whole through repetition and the use of musical forms.
5. Music is the most abstract of all art forms. In music, form helps to create a sense of direction. When a familiar melody heard at the beginning of a piece returns at the end, it gives the listener a sense of satisfaction. In various phrases of a single piece, smaller parallel features within the piece help to create microcosms of the piece in a whole within single lines.
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